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Virginia Noncompete Clauses and Low-Wage Employees

In the realm of employment law, a groundbreaking legal battle is underway in Virginia, shining a spotlight on the rights of low-wage employees and the complex world of noncompete agreements, especially Virginia noncompete agreements. In February of 2023, Judge Hudson of the U.S. District Court of the Eastern District of Virginia (Richmond) denied a motion to dismiss and motion to transfer the case to Florida in Ian Woie, et al., v. Blue-Grace Logistics LLC.

The decision is a pivotal moment for businesses employing low-wage employees in Virginia (as of 2023, employees making $69,836 or less are “low wage” under Virginia law). It offers valuable lessons for businesses operating within Virginia even if headquartered elsewhere.

The Case Overview:

The crux of this legal showdown lies in an employment contract that contained a restrictive covenant preventing former employees from seeking employment in the transportation logistics industry after their tenure with Blue-Grace Logistics ended.

The plaintiffs, including Ian Woie, Ryan Breeden, Donald Morrow, Daniel Boehling, and Traffic Tech, Inc. (“Traffic Tech”), collectively representing low-wage employees, initiated this declaratory action. Their objective was to challenge the legality of the restrictive covenant under Virginia law.

Blue-Grace Logistics LLC employed the individual plaintiffs, all of whom lived and worked in Virginia. Blue-Grace Logistics is headquartered in Florida but operates a regional office in Richmond, Virginia. Blue-Grace had employees sign noncompete agreements as a condition of employment, a practice common in many industries, but contentious when applied to low-wage workers.

Man refusing to sign virginia noncompete contract

The real battle of this case lies in the noncompete clause within these employment contracts, a clause that significantly curtails the employment prospects of low-wage employees in Virginia after their association with Blue-Grace. The restrictive covenant, which came under scrutiny in the court, restricts employees from soliciting other Blue-Grace employees and customers or working for any competing transportation logistics company in any capacity for a specified period.

The Risk to Businesses Operating in Virginia:

This case underscores the critical aspect of noncompete agreements concerning low-wage employees and the risks that businesses operating in Virginia need to consider, even if they are headquartered in another state.

The case highlights the legal challenges that can arise when noncompete agreements impact low-wage employees. Businesses must be aware of the nuanced employment laws in Virginia and the potential hurdles they might face in enforcing such agreements, especially when dealing with low wage employees. Every business operating in Virginia is subject to Virginia law, even if it is headquartered in another state.

2. Forum Selection Clauses:

Businesses should carefully examine forum selection clauses within contracts, including noncompete agreements. In this case, the court carefully analyzed the language of the forum selection clause which specified that the state or federal courts in Hillsborough County, Florida is the only forum for actions to enforce the agreement. Here, the plaintiffs argued that they are seeking to invalidate the contract, not enforce it. The court agreed.

Therefore, the forum selection clause did not apply. It’s crucial for business attorneys to consider this case when drafting forum selection clauses and ensure that the language in the clause explicitly defines the scope of their applicability.

3. Complexity of Noncompete Agreements:

Virginia noncompete agreements can vary significantly in terms of their scope and geographical limitations. Businesses should carefully consider the language used in these agreements, considering the specific requirements of the state and the industry in which they operate. In this case, the court found that the plaintiffs live and work in Virginia and are protected by Virginia employment laws – including Virginia’s prohibition against noncompete restrictions for low-wage employees. The court relied on these facts in its decision to deny the motion to dismiss.



This ruling in Woie, et al. v. Blue-Grace Logistics LLC case is preliminary and allows the plaintiffs to pursue their case at trial. On July 1, 2020, when Virginia law first prohibited businesses from enforcing noncompete agreements against low-wage employees, business attorneys in Virginia expected to see litigation arise from the change in law.

This case is one of the first since then. It serves as a reminder to businesses, regardless of their headquarters’ location, that navigating Virginia noncompete agreements requires a sound understanding of state employment laws and the potential risks involved. Businesses must approach the use of noncompete clauses carefully and with help from a business attorney, keeping in mind the rights and protections provided to low-wage employees in the state.


To understand how Virginia noncompete laws impacts your business, book a free consultation today.